Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Sciences 2021-11-12T13:39:43+02:00 Hanna-Marja Voipio Open Journal Systems <p>Published by the Scandinavian Society for Laboratory Animal Science, Sweden</p> <p>Online ISSN <strong>2002-0112</strong></p> Buprenorphine, but not lidocaine, effectively attenuates post-operative thermal hypersensitivity in an incisional model in neonatal rats (Rattus norvegicus) 2021-03-10T11:26:09+02:00 Erin M Katz Monika K Huss Katechan Jampachaisri Cholawat Pacharinsak <p>There is limited information on safe and effective neonatal rodent analgesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia provided by buprenorphine (Bup) and lidocaine (Lid) in an incisional pain model. Male and female postnatal day three Sprague Dawley rat pups (<em>n</em>=40) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: 1) Saline - 0.1 ml subcutaneous (SC)/0.01 ml saline incisional infiltration; 2) BupL - 0.025 mg/kg Bup, SC/0.01 ml saline infiltration; 3) BupH - 0.05 mg/kg Bup, SC/0.01 ml saline infiltration; 4) LidL - 2 mg/kg lidocaine infiltration/0.1 ml saline SC; and 5) LidH - LDC 4 mg/kg lidocaine infiltration/0.1 ml saline SC. Rat pups were anesthetized with sevoflurane by mask, and a 1-cm full thickness skin incision was made over the left lateral thigh. Infiltration of lidocaine or saline occurred prior to wound closure with surgical glue. Baseline thermal latency was measured 24 hr prior to surgery, and subsequently 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48-hrs post-operatively using an infrared diode laser. Thermal latency in the Saline group was significantly reduced compared to baseline up to the 4 hr timepoint. Both BupL and BupH attenuated thermal hypersensitivity for at least 4 hours in this model. LidL attenuated thermal hypersensitivity for 1 hr and LidH failed to attenuate thermal hypersensitivity. No abnormal clinical signs were noted for all treatment groups throughout the study. In summary, a single pre-operative dose of buprenorphine 0.025 to 0.05 mg/kg (SC) effectively attenuated postoperative thermal hypersensitivity in 3-day old neonatal rat incisional pain model for 4 hours.</p> 2021-03-09T14:27:41+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Blood lactate and glucose concentrations in the femoral artery and three different veins during anaesthesia of healthy laboratory pigs 2021-04-16T11:52:27+03:00 Lisa Ann Hald Christian Sonne Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup <p>Blood lactate is a parameter used for monitoring pigs during prolonged anaesthesia. Here we compared blood lactate and glucose concentrations in nine anaesthetised laboratory pigs. Seventeen of the samples originated from a liver project and 15 from a kidney project. Mean and standard deviations of arterial blood lactate and glucose were compared with values for portal, renal and femoral veins by using paired Student’s t-test, paired Wilcoxon test as well as Spearman rank-order correlation. The study showed that lactate concentration was constant whether measured in blood from the femoral artery, portal vein, renal vein or femoral vein. The study showed that the origin of the blood sampled is not important and that changes in blood lactate concentration are likely to be the same throughout the cardiovascular system in healthy pigs.</p> 2021-03-09T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Are female mice dehydrated during peak lactation? Effect of water and gel supplement on hydration parameters and water consumption in two strains of mice 2021-05-21T14:40:08+03:00 Charlotta Grims Christina Jacobson Patricia Hedenqvist <p>Mice (<em>Mus musculus</em>) have a high basal rate of metabolism which increases during pregnancy and lactation. During peak lactation, water intake amounts to up to 65 % of the bodyweight per day. Providing water in a bottle may pose a restriction of water intake and lead to dehydration during periods of high demand, such as peak lactation. To establish if female mice are able to sustain a physiological hydration status during peak lactation, a completely randomized factorial design study was conducted with 12 RjOrl:SWISS (SWISS) and 12 C57BL/6JRj (B6) six-week old female mice in breeding. Female mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups with different watering alternatives: water bottle (Standard, n=6); water bottle + sachet with 98 % water gel (Gel, n=6); or water bottle + water bowl (Bowl, n=6). Non-mated females, provided with water bottles, served as controls (n=6). Hydration parameters [total protein (TP), hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum osmolality (Osmol), blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] and magnesium were measured in blood before mating (Pre) and during peak lactation (Peak), and at the same time points in controls. Water bottles were weighed during lactation and body weights of females and litters recorded at weaning. Data were analyzed by parametric or non-parametric methods to evaluate effects of strain, group and time point. The hydration parameters and magnesium were mostly within normal ranges in all animals at Pre and Peak. TP was lower at Peak in all lactating groups compared to Controls and to Pre (p&lt;0.01). Mice in group Bowl consumed 54 % less bottle water compared with Gel and Standard (p&lt;0.001), had 34 % lower levels of BUN than Standard and Control (p&lt;0.01) and 5 % lower serum osmolality at Peak than Pre (p&lt;0.01). <br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Female mice are not dehydrated at peak lactation. However, they prefer to drink, and seemingly drink more water, from a bowl than from a bottle.</p> 2021-05-17T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Animal welfare and morality of the use of cloned animals 2021-08-20T13:10:41+03:00 David Arney <p>Cloned animals are used in a wide range of species and in many contexts, such as agriculture, pharmaceutical production and animal research. Owing to their many benefits to humans, we can expect that the use of cloned animals will increase. Nevertheless, there is little focus on the ethical problems that are specific to the use of cloned animals among researchers and animal welfare bodies, as well as a lack of engagement with the general public on the subject. Most animal welfare problems that are specific for cloned animals may be ameliorated with improved husbandry methods. However, the discussion of the morality of using cloned animals will remain. This article gives examples of the ethical and welfare problems that are specific for the use of cloned animals compared to the use of conventional farm or research animals, and furthermore discusses the disconnect in the scientific community on their views on the use of cloned animals compared to the views in the general public&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2021-08-19T12:40:17+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using cage ladders as a handling device reduces aversion and anxiety in laboratory mice, similar to tunnel handling 2021-08-20T13:10:39+03:00 Rebecca Sandgren Charlotta Grims John Waters Jane L Hurst <p>Handling laboratory animals for husbandry and other procedures can be an important source of anxiety and stress, compromising animal welfare as well as the reliability of research that is sensitive to background stressors. Studies have revealed that picking up laboratory mice by the tail induces aversion, anxiety, physiological stress and depression-like behaviour, but such negative responses can be reduced substantially by using a handling tunnel that mice enter readily with minimal familiarisation. It has not been tested whether anxiety and aversion can be reduced similarly by using other objects to lift up mice from their home cage. Here we compared the willingness of C57BL/6NRj mice to interact voluntarily with their handler after being picked up either on a plastic ladder present in the home cage, or inside a familiar tunnel, or lifted by the base of the tail and then returned to the home cage. We also tested anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze tests once animals were familiarised with their assigned handling method. While mice picked up briefly by the tail were unwilling to interact with the hand that picked them up, mice picked up by ladder or tunnel readily approached, climbed on or entered these devices, with no significant difference in time spent with ladder or tunnel. Anxiety in an unfamiliar open field was reduced to a similar extent in ladder and tunnel handled mice compared with those picked up by the tail. Mice handled by tunnel also showed reduced anxiety in an elevated plus maze compared to those handled by tail, while ladder handling resulted in an intermediate response. Our study shows that, like tunnels, using home cage ladders to pick up mice reduces anxiety and avoids the aversion that is induced by picking up mice by their tails. We discuss the potential practicality of using ladders and tunnels to handle mice in different contexts.</p> 2021-08-19T12:42:43+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A detachable tourniquet to aid rodent tail-vasculature catheterisation; especially useful for preclinical imaging 2021-09-09T13:24:50+03:00 Kasper Hansen <p>Rodents are frequently used animal models in biomedical research. Catheterisation of a blood vessel in the tail is often performed to enable intravascular access for administration of drugs, fluid or blood sampling. Many experimenters employ a “Minasian tourniquet” to dilate the vasculature in the tail in order to ease catheterisation. Certain experiments, e.g. those that employ preclinical imaging techniques, require relatively long catheter-tubing (~0.5 to 2 meters) to reach the rodent inside the scanner. Following catheter insertion, great care must be taken to carefully guide the loop of the tourniquet back along the entire length of the catheter. To minimise the risk of withdrawing the catheter accidentally during this step, a simple detachable tourniquet was created. This tourniquet can be removed completely and does not require careful guiding of the tourniquet-loop back along the catheter.</p> 2021-03-09T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of non-sterile bedding and feed on the spread of some infectious agents among BALB/c mice in SPF animal housing 2021-11-12T13:39:43+02:00 Dinara Turegeldiyeva Rinat Islamov Altynay Rysbekova Victor Semenuyk Laura Zhambyrbaeva Anna Panevina <p>The aim of this study was to identify and assess the risk of spreading infectious agents in a colony of specific pathogen free (SPF) BALB/cOlaHsd mice when using non-sterile bedding and feed. The total number of microbial colonies in bedding was estimated, and their species identification was carried out using bacteriological methods. Infectious agents regulated for SPF mice were determined in the mouth and fecal swabs of mice using real time PCR. The mice in the animal facility were housed in individually ventilated cages (IVC). To assess the effect of air, one group of animals was kept in open-air cages (OAC). The study duration was 90 days. <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> was identified in bedding in the groups of animals that were kept on non-sterilized bedding and in OAC. In addition, the level of bacterial contamination in the group with non-sterile bedding was significantly higher (1065 CFU/g) than the control group and higher than the other groups. These microorganisms in bedding were &nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus spp,</em> <em>Staphylococcus spp</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> . <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>spp </em>and <em>E.coli</em> are not commensal microflora, but can be found in SPF animals. As a result of PCR testing, only <em>Rodentibacter pneumotropicus</em> was found in the mice; it was present in each group. It is assumed that the mouse colony was initially contaminated with this infectious agent. No visible pathological changes such as enlargement of the spleen, liver and lymph nodes, or intestinal distension, were detected at necropsy. The results of this study showed that personnel are possibly the main source of <em>S. epidermidis</em> because this microorganism is not found in SPF-mice. The transfer of bacterial agents occurs mainly through poor-quality bedding, as well as by the air.</p> 2021-11-12T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##