Histopathology of the Hematopoietic Bone Marrow in the Temporomandibular Joint of Rats Subjected to Undernutrition and to Mandibular Condyle Fracture
Undernutrition can cause important functional and morphological alterations in the hematopoietic bone marrow (HBM). Degeneration of the HBM in malnourished individuals has been observed in the long bones, but none has been described in the cranial bones. Mandibular condyle fracture can lead to determine nutritional effects due to the high catabolism needed for the bone healing added to the difficulties of mastication. The aim of this study is to describe the histological aspect of HBM in the fractured mandibular condyle and in the temporal bone of malnourished rats. Thirty adult rats suffered unilateral mandibular condyle fracture and were divided into well-nourished (FG) and malnourished (MG) groups. In the MG the animals received a hypoproteic diet during the experiment. Histological sections of the temporomandibular joint were stained to visualize and quantify the HBM in this region at 24h, and 7, 15, 30, and 90 days postfracture. At 24 hours, FG and MG showed hypocellularity and ischemic degeneration in the mandibular condyle and in the temporal bone. At 7 days, FG exhibited high cellularity in comparison with MG in the condyle; the temporal bone of both groups presented hypocellularity and degeneration. At 30 and 90 days, FG exhibited similar characteristics to those of the control; MG maintained the degeneration level mainly in the temporal bone. Malnutrition prejudices the regeneration of the HBM during a fracture healing in the temporomandibular joint. This fact contributes to a complete modification of the bone structure as well as to an impairment of the healing process.